During the last century most of the economic literature and approaches were developed following closed macroeconomic models. The solution of the problems were "national". Policy makers used fiscal, monetary policies or mixed fiscal-monetary policies to improve the situation. The exchange rate policy was considered as a supplement measure to use in case of necessity. During the 1980's and especially 1990's this view changed drastically. A policy co-ordination was considered as a positive condition to achieve national objectives. If there is not such co-ordination, the positive effects of some national policies are reduced and sometimes eliminated. On the other hand, a globalisation process ha...
As it is well known, the present is rooted in the past. For this reason by studying the past, we can better understand not only some basic principles of the ideas proposed by modern economics, but also some make some recommendations to meet future economic problems of society. A huge literature has been developed on the theories and approaches of the most eminent economists. However, there is not much literature analysing contributions different from English-language on several concrete topics. For this reason, this book tries to cover this gap. In this sense, three aspects are considered: the contributions of Italian authors, Smithsonian approaches on education, growth and moral aspects, and, finally, some modern contributions.
La obra Diccionario de Economía y Empres está compuesta por nueve volúmenes referidos a los campos más importantes de la economía y de la administración de empresas. En este volumen se incluyen unas mil entradas que ofrecen una amplia información sobre los distintos términos habituales y especializados que se emplean en el ámbito de la economía aplicada y, en concreto, de la política económica, de la economía mundial y de la estructura económica, lo que permite conocer la terminología empleada por los economistas y comprender los problemas a los que se enfrentan los decisores políticos.
There are important lessons to be learned and analytical frameworks to be adapted and reused from the body of reference provided by the past history of public finance. This makes it possible to approach themes in terms of the actions of policy makers in various operating sectors of the economy: money, foreign exchange, finance, industry, labour relations, international trade, taxation and so on. One other key function carried out by the central authorities is the enactment and enforcement of rules governing competition between economic agents. Furthermore, in many countries, goods and services are produced by public sector enterprises, which emphasises that public intervention comes in many shapes and forms. In this book, attention centres on the fiscal sector, where government intervention has a crucial impact on private saving and investment, public spending decisions, taxation and government revenues, including the funding of budget deficits.
Miguel-Ángel Galindo Martín, Joaquín Guzman Cuevas and Domingo Ribeiro Soriano University of Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, Spain University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain The economic growth and the progress of the nations have been two issues that have worried to the economists during centuries. The classical eco- mics books have developed different theories and considered several f- tors that could explain those processes. Unfortunately, a single answer has not been obtained and nowadays economists try also to achieve a response to the mechanism of economic growth. Economic growth has been considered as one of the most relevant e- nomic policy. As it is well known, the validity of an economic policy is measured in terms of economic growth rate. It is supposed that those countries that obtain a higher economic growth rate are designing more efficient economic policies than those that show lower rates. The main corollary to this hypothesis is that the developing countries must follow and copy the economic policies designed by the developed countries.
Over the past century, an extensive literature has developed, exploring the impact of entrepreneurship on economic performance. The active participation of entrepreneurs in virtually all aspects of business and economic activity has obliged policy makers within the global economy to consider entrepreneurship as a determining variable in any political force, not only for bodies and groups created specifically to this end, but also for any decision-making body. To this end, specific actions promoting entrepreneurship have already been established around the world. However, the particular dynamics of entrepreneurship by women present unique opportunities and challenges. The women’s perspectiv...
The environment is considered the surroundings in which an organism operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation. It is this environment which is both so valuable, on the one hand, and so endangered on the other. And it is people who are by and large ruining the environment both for themselves and for all other organisms. This book reviews the latest research in this field which is vital for everyone.